Mouse clavicular development: analysis of wild-type and cleidocranial dysplasia mutant mice

Dev Dyn. 1997 Sep;210(1):33-40. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0177(199709)210:1<33::AID-AJA4>3.0.CO;2-2.


Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypoplasia or aplasia of clavicles, open fontanelles, and other skeletal anomalies. A mouse mutant, shown by clinical and radiographic analysis to be strikingly similar to the human disorder and designated Ccd, was used as a model for the human disorder. Since malformation of the clavicle is the hallmark of CCD, we studied clavicular development in wild-type and Ccd mice. Histology and in situ hybridization experiments were performed to compare the temporal and spatial expression of several genes in wild-type and Ccd mutant mouse embryos. Bone and cartilage specific markers--type I, II, and X collagens, Sox9, aggrecan, and osteopontin were used as probes. The analyses covered the development of the clavicle from the initial mesenchymal condensation at embryonic day 13 (E13) to the late mineralization stage at embryonic day 15.5. At day 13.5, cells in the center of the condensation differentiate into characteristic precursor cells that were not observed in other bone anlagen. In the medial part of the anlage these cells express markers of the early cartilage lineage (type II collagen and Sox9), whereas cells of the lateral part express markers of the osteoblast lineage (type I collagen). With further development the medial cells differentiate into chondrocytes and start to express chondrocyte-specific markers such as aggrecan. Cells of the lateral part differentiate into osteoblasts as indicated by the production of bone matrix and the expression of osteopontin. At day 14.5 a regular growth plate has developed between the two parts where type X collagen expression can be demonstrated in hypertrophic chondrocytes. The data indicate that the medial part of the clavicle develops by endochondral bone formation while the lateral part ossifies as a membranous bone. The clavicle of Ccd mice showed a smaller band of mesenchymal cell condensation than in wild-type mice. Cells of the condensation failed to express type I and type II collagen at E13.5. In the lateral part of the clavicle type I collagen expression was not detected until E14.5 and osteopontin expression only appeared at E15.5. At E15.5, a small ossification center appears in the lateral part which is, in contrast to the wild-type clavicular bone, solid and without primary spongiosa as well as bone marrow. In the medial portion, type II collagen expression and endochondral ossification never occurs in Ccd mice; this portion of the clavicle is therefore missing in Ccd.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone and Bones / metabolism
  • Cartilage / metabolism
  • Clavicle / abnormalities*
  • Cleidocranial Dysplasia / pathology*
  • Collagen / metabolism
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Mesoderm / metabolism
  • Mesoderm / pathology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Mutant Strains
  • Osteopontin
  • Sialoglycoproteins / metabolism


  • SPP1 protein, human
  • Sialoglycoproteins
  • Spp1 protein, mouse
  • Osteopontin
  • Collagen