Numerous studies in stroke patients suggest that the left frontal anterior region may be strategic for depression. However, these findings could not always be replicated. Some authors even deny any etiological contribution of lesion location to depression. The predominant role of the right hemisphere in secondary mania is well recognized. In disorders such as apathy, anxiety, catastrophe reactions and pathological laughing and crying, further studies are needed to determine the potential clinico-topographic correlations. Affective disorders are important to consider in stroke patients, since they may influence neurological recovery and may be responsive to treatment. Remarkable features of emotional behavior, such as disinhibition, denial, indifference, overt sadness and aggressiveness, are not rare during the acute phase of stroke and might be overlooked if not searched for systematically with appropriately designed scales. Some of these early behaviors, such as denial, may relate to the late development of depression, anxiety and other disorders. Systematic studies on large samples of patients may allow to establish which of these acute emotional behavioral changes are markers for the delayed development of mood disorders.