The effects of alpha (10-Hz) and beta (22-Hz) "entrainment" stimulation on the alpha and beta EEG bands: individual differences are critical to prediction of effects

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1997 Mar;22(1):3-20. doi: 10.1023/a:1026233624772.


Two different groups of normal college students were formed: One (the alpha group) received 10-Hz audiovisual (AV) stimulation for 8 minutes, and the other (beta) group received 22-Hz AV stimulation for 8 minutes. EEG power in the alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) bands was FFT-extracted before, during, and for 24 minutes after stimulation. It was found that baseline (prestimulation) alpha and beta power predict the effects of stimulation, leading to individual differences in responsivity. High-baseline alpha participants showed either no entrainment or relatively prolonged entrainment with alpha stimulation. Low-baseline participants showed transient entrainment. Baseline alpha also predicted the direction of change in alpha with beta stimulation. Baseline beta and alpha predicted beta band response to beta stimulation, which was transient enhancement in some participants, inhibition in others. Some participants showed relatively prolonged beta enhancement with beta stimulation.

MeSH terms

  • Acoustic Stimulation
  • Alpha Rhythm*
  • Arousal / physiology
  • Attention / physiology
  • Beta Rhythm*
  • Biofeedback, Psychology / physiology*
  • Cerebral Cortex / physiology
  • Electroencephalography*
  • Fourier Analysis
  • Humans
  • Individuality*
  • Photic Stimulation
  • Reference Values
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Students / psychology