A deletion in the bovine myostatin gene causes the double-muscled phenotype in cattle

Nat Genet. 1997 Sep;17(1):71-4. doi: 10.1038/ng0997-71.


An exceptional muscle development commonly referred to as 'double-muscled' (Fig. 1) has been seen in several cattle breeds and has attracted considerable attention from beef producers. Double-muscled animals are characterized by an increase in muscle mass of about 20%, due to general skeletal-muscle hyperplasia-that is, an increase in the number of muscle fibers rather than in their individual diameter. Although the hereditary nature of the double-muscled condition was recognized early on, the precise mode of inheritance has remained controversial; monogenic (domainant and recessive), oligogenic and polygenic models have been proposed. In the Belgian Blue cattle breed (BBCB), segregation analysis performed both in experimental crosses and in the outbred population suggested an autosomal recessive inheritance. This was confirmed when the muscular hypertrophy (mh) locus was mapped 3.1 cM from microsatellite TGLA44 on the centromeric end of bovine chromosome 2 (ref. 5). We used a positional candidate approach to demonstrate that a mutation in bovine MSTN, which encodes myostatin, a member of the TGF beta superfamily, is responsible for the double-muscled phenotype. We report an 11-bp deletion in the coding sequence for the bioactive carboxy-terminal domain of the protein causing the muscular hypertrophy observed in Belgian Blue cattle.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cattle / anatomy & histology
  • Cattle / genetics*
  • Chromosome Mapping*
  • DNA Primers
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Microsatellite Repeats*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Muscle, Skeletal / anatomy & histology*
  • Myostatin
  • Phenotype
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Deletion*
  • Species Specificity
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / biosynthesis
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / chemistry
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics*


  • DNA Primers
  • MSTN protein, human
  • Myostatin
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta