High sensitivity test for the early diagnosis of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. III. Computation of time-specified tolerance intervals as reference for blood pressure excess in the diagnosis of gestational hypertension

J Perinat Med. 1997;25(3):237-53.


According to classic embryological testbooks intervillous circulation is established early in the first trimester. This process starts with trophoblastic invasion of the decidua in which proteolytic enzymes facilitate the penetration and erosion of the adjacent maternal capillaries with formation of the lacunae. After the lacunar or previllous stage trophoblast invades deeper portions of endometrium with belonging spiral arteries. This gradual process finishes with direct opening of the spiral arteries in the intervillous space under the fully developed placenta. This classic concept of establishment of the intervillous circulation was challenged in 1987 and 1988 by the experiments of Hustin and Shaaps. The authors believed that blood flow in the intervillous space is absent in incompletely development before 12 weeks of gestation. After the introduction of the generation of far more sensitive color Doppler devices in the last few years, our group and several others reported a positive finding of intervillous circulation during the first trimester of pregnancy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Pressure*
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / diagnosis*
  • Mathematics
  • Pre-Eclampsia / diagnosis*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular / diagnosis*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Time Factors