Objective: To determine reference values for urinary phosphate/creatinine (Cr) concentration ratios and to complete reference values for urinary calcium/creatinine and magnesium/creatinine ratios in the second morning urine sample of healthy infants, children, and adolescents.
Design: Urinary P/Cr, Ca/Cr, and Mg/Cr ratios were determined from the second morning urine sample. Two urine samples were obtained 1 week apart from most subjects to assess reproducibility.
Setting: Kindergartens and schools of Lausanne, Switzerland.
Participants: A total of 410 healthy children aged 1 month to 17 years (197 girls and 213 boys) participated in the study.
Results: The 5th and 95th percentiles were estimated from 664 urine samples. There were no differences related to sex. A nonlinear regression in terms of age was used to smooth the estimated percentiles yielding reference curves from which critical values may be obtained for any given age. The 95th percentile for urinary Ca/Cr and Mg/Cr agreed with previously reported values in children older than 7 years. The upper limit of the three solute/creatinine ratios decreased significantly with age: for urinary P/Cr from 19.0 mol/mol at 1 month to 2.7 at 14 years; for urinary Ca/Cr from 2.2 to 0.7 mol/mol, and for urinary Mg/Cr from 2.2 to 0.6 mol/mol. Lower limits varied little. Interindividual and intraindividual variations decreased with age.
Conclusions: Urinary P/Cr, Ca/Cr, and Mg/Cr ratios vary strongly with age. We provide reference values, expressed both in SI and in mass units, for urinary P/Cr, Ca/Cr, and Mg/Cr in children aged one month to 17 years.