Pathogenesis-related (PR)-5 proteins are a family of proteins that are induced by different phytopathogens in many plants and share significant sequence similarity with thaumatin. We isolated a complementary DNA (ATLP-3) encoding a PR5-like protein from Arabidopsis which is distinct from two other previously reported PR5 cDNAs from the same plant species. The predicted ATLP-3 protein with its amino-terminal signal sequence is 245 amino acids in length and is acidic with a pl of 4.8. The deduced amino acid sequence of ATLP-3 shows significant sequence similarity with PR5 and thaumatin-like proteins from Arabidopsis and other plants and contains a putative signal sequence at the amino-terminus. The expression of ATLP-3 and a related gene (ATLP-1) that we previously isolated from Arabidopsis was induced by pathogen infection and salicylic acid, a known inducer of pathogenesis-related genes. Southern blot analysis indicates that the ATLP-1 and ATLP-3 are coded by single-copy genes. To study the effect of ATLP-1 and ATLP-3 proteins on fungal growth, the cDNA regions corresponding to putative mature protein were expressed in Escherichia coli and the cDNA encoded proteins were purified. ATLP-1 and ATLP-3 proteins cross-reacted with anti-osmotin and anti-zeamatin antibodies. ATLP-3 protein showed antifungal activity against several fungal pathogens suggesting that ATLP-3 may be involved in plant defense against fungal pathogens.