The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic, low-level exposure of mice prone to mammary tumors to 435 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation promotes an earlier onset, a faster growth rate or a greater total incidence of mammary tumors than in sham-exposed controls. Two hundred female C3H/HeJ mice were exposed for 21 months (22 h/day, 7 days/week) to a horizontally polarized 435 MHz pulse-wave (1.0 micros pulse width, 1.0 kHz pulse rate) RF radiation environment with an incident power density of 1.0 mW/cm2 (SAR = 0.32 W/kg). An additional 200 mice were sham-exposed. Animals that died spontaneously, became moribund or were euthanized after 21 months of exposure were completely necropsied; tissues were subjected to histopathological examinations. Concerning mammary carcinomas, there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to latency to tumor onset, tumor growth rate and overall tumor incidence. Histopathological examination revealed no significant differences in numbers of malignant, metastatic or benign neoplasms between groups. Survival probability was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method; no significant difference between groups was noted (Cox's test). Under the conditions of this long-term study, low-level exposure of mice prone to mammary tumors to 435 MHz RF radiation did not affect the incidence of mammary tumors, tumor growth rate, latency to tumor onset or animal longevity when compared to sham-exposed controls.