Educational and occupational outcome of hyperactive boys grown up

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997 Sep;36(9):1222-7. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199709000-00014.


Objective: Little is known about the adult outcome of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a very prevalent childhood disorder that is known to affect deleteriously academic performance and other areas of child functioning. This study represents a third wave of evaluations that examine the long-term educational achievement and occupational rank of children with ADHD.

Method: This is a prospective follow-up of white boys of average intelligence whose ADHD was clinically diagnosed according to systematic criteria at an average age of 7 years. Follow-up intervals range from 15 to 21 years (mean, 17 years). At average age 24 years, 85 probands (representing 82% of the childhood cohort) and 73 controls (84%) were directly interviewed by trained clinicians who were blind to group membership.

Results: First, probands completed significantly less formal schooling than controls (about 2 years less, on average). Second, probands had lower-ranking occupational positions than controls. Finally, these disadvantages were not accounted for by adult mental status.

Conclusions: The present study suggests that childhood ADHD predisposes to specific disadvantages and continues to affect important functional domains unrelated to current psychiatric diagnosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / complications*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Child
  • Cost of Illness
  • Disease Progression
  • Educational Status*
  • Employment*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Occupations
  • Prospective Studies
  • Single-Blind Method