The development of genetics in this century has been catapulted forward by several milestones: rediscovery of Mendel's laws, determination of DNA as the genetic material, discovery of the double-helix structure of DNA and its implications for genetic behavior, and most recently, analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Each of these milestones has generated a huge wave of progress in genetics. Consequently, our understanding of organismal genetics now extends from phenotypes to their molecular genetic basis. It is now clear that the next wave of progress in genetics will hinge on genome molecular physical mapping, since a genome physical map will provide an invaluable, readily accessible system for many detailed genetic studies and isolation of many genes of economic or biological importance. Recent development of large-DNA fragment (> 100 kb) manipulation and cloning technologies, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) cloning, has provided the powerful tools needed to generate molecular physical maps for higher-organism genomes. This chapter will discuss (1) an ideal physical map of plant genome and its applications in plant genetic and biological studies, (2) reviews on physical mapping of the genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana, and man, (3) large-insert DNA libraries: cosmid, YAC and BAC, and genome physical mapping, (4) physical mapping of the rice genome with BACs, and (5) perspectives on the physical mapping of the rice genome with BACs.