A double-blind randomized crossover study of 0.125 mg Pergolide (Lilly) at bedtime versus 250mg L-Dopa + Carbidopa (Roche) was conducted in 16-day phases in 11 patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome. Two patients reported a partial and 9 patients a complete relieve of motor restlessness while receiving Pergolide. Only 1 patient experienced an improvement of restlessness after L-Dopa. The patients showed polysomnographically a mean decrease in NMS cluster disturbed time by 45% from control on L-Dopa (p < 0.025) and by 79% from control on Pergolide (p < 0.001). In addition, Pergolide increased the total sleep time compared to L-Dopa (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the dopamine agonist Pergolide is superior to L-Dopa in the treatment of RLS and NMS.