Cortical layer I changes in schizophrenia: a marker for impaired brain development?

J Neural Transm (Vienna). 1997;104(4-5):549-59. doi: 10.1007/BF01277671.


The prefrontal cortices of healthy control subjects and schizophrenic patients were examined with an antibody mixture against non-phosphorylated neurofilaments (SMI 311). SMI 311 immunoreactivity was observed in numerous pyramidal neurons of layers II to VI and in Cajal-Retzius cells (CRC) of layer I. On the basis of their Golgi-like immunostaining, CRC could be classified into three morphologically heterogeneous groups, which showed different distributions in the two proband groups. The overall density of CRC in layer I did not differ significantly between controls and schizophrenics. However, CRC were more numerous in the lower third of layer I in schizophrenics and in the upper and middle third of layer I in controls. CRC play a key role in neuronal migration, thus, our results support the neurodevelopmental hypotheses of schizophrenic pathophysiology.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers
  • Brain / growth & development*
  • Cerebral Cortex / metabolism
  • Cerebral Cortex / pathology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neurofilament Proteins / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Reference Values
  • Schizophrenia / metabolism
  • Schizophrenia / pathology*


  • Biomarkers
  • Neurofilament Proteins