This study examines the impact of religiosity on the incidence and course of depressive syndromes in a community-based sample of elderly people in The Netherlands (n = 177). The course of depression was assessed in five waves of measurements, covering a period of 1 year. Religiosity was defined as salience of religion compared to the salience of other aspects of life. Religious salience was not associated with incidence of depression, but showed a relatively strong association with improvement of depression among the respondents who were depressed at the first measurement. This association was most prominent among subjects with poor physical health.