The objective of this article is to evaluate the long-term success and complication rates for the surgical implantation of the American Medical Systems (AMS) 700CX penile prosthesis for the treatment of Peyronie's disease in a relatively large patient population. For a period of 8 years, between 1986 and 1994, severe Peyronie's disease was diagnosed in 309 men who elected to have prosthetic surgery performed and who had no history of prior prosthetic surgery. All patients were treated by surgical placement of an inflatable prosthesis, using the AMS model 700 CX. All surgical approaches were scrotal. Surgical and demographic data were collected on the day of surgery, and follow-up data were obtained from chart review and telephone interview. Descriptive statistics were utilized to obtain results. A surgical success rate of 98.4% was achieved for primary implants, as assessed by the number patients who did not required further surgical intervention, during the mean follow-up period of 3.5 years. Only 5 patients (1.6%) required revision surgery. In the 304 patients who retained a primary prothesis implant, sexual intercourse was possible for all patients within 6-8 weeks. Mean patient age at surgery was 56.5 years. Primary diagnosis was Peyronie's disease in 73% of the patients; the other 27% of patients had Peyronie's disease secondary to a primary diagnoses of either diabetes mellitus (17%), organic/idiopathic disease (8%), or other etiologies (2%). The results suggest that the surgical implantation of the newer model prosthesis as a treatment for Peyronie's disease offers a highly successful therapy with low morbidity.