Data on the identification of proteins of Bacillus subtilis on two-dimensional (2-D) gels as well as their regulation are summarized and the identification of 56 protein spots is included. The pattern of proteins synthesized in Bacillus subtilis during exponential growth, during starvation for glucose or phosphate, or after the imposition of stresses like heat shock, salt- and ethanol stress as well as oxidative stress was analyzed. N-terminal sequencing of protein spots allowed the identification of 93 proteins on 2-D gels, which are required for the synthesis of amino acids and nucleotides, the generation of ATP, for glycolyses, the pentose phosphate cycle, the citric acid cycle as well as for adaptation to a variety of stress conditions. A computer-aided analysis of the 2-D gels was used to monitor the synthesis profile of more than 130 protein spots. Proteins performing housekeeping functions during exponential growth displayed a reduced synthesis rate during stress and starvation, whereas spots induced during stress and starvation were classified as specific stress proteins induced by a single stimulus or a group of related stimuli, or as general stress proteins induced by a variety of entirely different stimuli. The analysis of mutants in global regulators was initiated in order to establish a response regulation map for B. subtilis. These investigations demonstrated that the alternative sigma factor sigma B is involved in the regulation of almost all of the general stress proteins and that the phoPR two-component system is required for the induction of a large part but not all of the proteins induced by phosphate starvation.