The importance of MHC-I and MHC-II responses in vaccine efficacy against lethal herpes simplex virus type 1 challenge

Immunology. 1997 Jul;91(3):430-5. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2567.1997.00261.x.

Abstract

To investigate the importance of major histocompatability complex (MHC) class I- and MHC class II-dependent immune responses in herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) vaccine efficacy, groups of beta 2% (MHC I-) and Ab% (MHC II-) mice were inoculated with various vaccines, and then challenged intraperitoneally with HSV-1. Following vaccination with either live avirulent HSV-1, expressed HSV-1 glycoprotein D (gD), or a mixture of seven expressed HSV-1 glycoproteins (7gPs), Ab% (MHC-II-) mice developed no enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or neutralizing antibody titres. In contrast, significant ELISA and neutralizing antibody titres were induced in beta 2m% (MHC-I-) mice by all three vaccines. The neutralizing antibody titres were similar for all three vaccines, but were only approximately 1/4 to 1/3 of that developed in C57BL/6 (parental) mice vaccinated with the same antigens. All three vaccines protected 100% of the wild-type C57BL/6 mice against lethal challenge with 2 x 10(7) plaque-forming units (PFU) of HSV-1. The live virus vaccine and the 7gPs vaccine also protected 80% of the beta 2m% mice against the same lethal HSV-1 challenge dose. In contrast, in Abo/o mice, none of the vaccines provided significant protection against the same lethal challenge dose of HSV-1. However, at a lower challenge dose of 2 x 10(6) PFU, all three vaccines protected 70-80% of the vaccinated Ab% mice (compared to only 10% survival in mock vaccinated controls). Thus, vaccination provided some protection against lethal HSV-1 challenge in both beta 2m% and Ab% mice; however, the protection was less than that seen in the parental C57BL/6 mice. In addition, Ab% mice were less well protected by vaccination than were beta 2m% mice. Our results suggest that (1) both MHC-I and MHC-II are involved in vaccine efficacy against HSV-1 challenge; (2) both types of responses must be present for maximum vaccine efficacy: and (3) the MHC-II-dependent immune response appeared to be more important than the MHC-I-dependent immune response for vaccine efficacy against HSV-I challenge.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / biosynthesis
  • Genes, MHC Class I / immunology*
  • Genes, MHC Class II / immunology*
  • Herpes Simplex / genetics
  • Herpes Simplex / immunology*
  • Herpes Simplex / prevention & control
  • Immunoglobulins / biosynthesis
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Simplexvirus / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology
  • Thymus Gland / immunology
  • Viral Vaccines / immunology*

Substances

  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Immunoglobulins
  • Viral Vaccines