The mammalian cell cycle is controlled by regulators of the G1 to S transition such as tumor suppressor proteins, p53 and retinoblastoma (RB); cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4; and inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinase, p16INK4A. Recently, aberrations of these cell cycle-related genes have been reported to contribute to the formation and development of cancer. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), high frequencies of aberration have been detected in the p53 and RB genes. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 13q was detected in 35% of HCC and LOH on chromosome 17p was detected in 49%. Mutation of the p53 gene was also detected in 32%. The aberrations of these genes were observed more frequently in poorly differentiated and in advanced HCCs. On the other hand, genetic alterations of the cyclin D1 and p16INK4A genes were not so frequent, but appeared to be associated with the aggressive behavior of the tumor, which suggests that disruption of the cell cycle-related genes results in the progression of HCC. Further study with a substantial number of cases is required to determine the actual frequency of the aberrations of the G1 controlling genes in hepatocarcinogenesis.