The resonant step frequency in human running

Pflugers Arch. 1997 Nov;434(6):678-84. doi: 10.1007/s004240050451.


At running speeds less than about 13 km h-1 the freely chosen step frequency (ffree) is lower than the frequency at which the mechanical power is minimized (fmin). This dissociation between ffree and fmin was investigated by measuring mechanical power, metabolic energy expenditure and apparent natural frequency of the body's bouncing system (fsist) during running at three given speeds with different step frequencies. The ffree requires a mechanical power greater than that at fmin mainly due to a larger vertical oscillation of the body at each step. Energy expenditure is minimal and the mechanical efficiency is maximal at ffree. At a given speed, an increase in step frequency above ffree results in an increase in energy expenditure despite a decrease in mechanical power. On the other hand, a decrease in step frequency below ffree results in a larger increase in energy expenditure associated with an increase in mechanical power. When the step frequency is forced to values above or below ffree, fsist is forced to change similarly by adjusting the stiffness of the bouncing system. However the best match between fsist and step frequency takes place only in proximity of ffree (2. 6-2.8 Hz). It is concluded that during running at speeds less than 13 km h-1 energy is saved by tuning step frequency to fsist, even if this requires a mechanical power larger than necessary.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Models, Biological
  • Running / physiology*