This study examined, through a randomized controlled trial, the effects of cross-training (combined resistance and endurance exercise) on markers of insulin resistance, (e.g., dyslipidemia, intra-abdominal obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertension), body composition, and performance in hyperinsulinemic individuals. Sedentary adult males characterized as hyperinsulinemic (fasting insulin > 2 OuU.mL-1), randomly assigned to two groups (N = 8 each), completed 14 wk of training at 3 d.wk-1. An endurance-only (E) group performed both continuous cycle exercise and walking (30 min each at 60-70% heart rate reserve). A cross-training (C) group performed both endurance and resistance exercise (8 exercises, 4 sets/exercise, 8-12 repetitions/set) in a single session. Both E and C groups demonstrated similar increases in VO2max (25% and 27%) while only C demonstrated an increase in 1 RM bench press (19%) and leg press (25%). The changes induced by C training were significantly greater than those from E training alone in percent fat (6.9 +/- 1.3 vs 1.4 +/- 1.4), insulin concentration (8.5 +/- 2.7 vs 3.0 +/- 1.3 uU.mL-1), glucose levels (11.1 +/- 2.9 vs 5.9 +/- 2.6 mg.dL-1), HDL-C levels (5.1 +/- 1.3 vs 2.9 +/- 1.6 mg.dL-1), triglyceride concentration (43.8 +/- 13.6 mg.dL-1), and systolic blood pressure (14.6 +/- 5.5 vs 8.3 +/- 6.8 mm Hg). Results indicate that the addition of resistance training to an endurance training program will induce significantly greater differences in markers of insulin resistance and body composition in individuals with hyperinsulinemia than endurance training alone.