Psychiatric disorders among Egyptian pesticide applicators and formulators

Environ Res. 1997;73(1-2):193-9. doi: 10.1006/enrs.1997.3744.


Two hundred eight pesticide formulators, 172 pesticide applicators, and 223 control subjects (72 from an urban region matching the pesticide formulators and 151 from a rural area matching the pesticide applicators) underwent psychiatric assessment. The study aimed to screen for psychiatric morbidity using a standardized screening tool, the General Health Questionnaire, and a widely recognized system of diagnosis and classification, the revised third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Psychiatric Disorders (DSM-III-R). Significantly higher frequencies of psychiatric disorders were found in the exposed groups. The predominant diagnosis was depressive neurosis; the most frequent symptoms were irritability and erectile dysfunction. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Agricultural Workers' Diseases / chemically induced
  • Agricultural Workers' Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Egypt / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Mental Disorders / chemically induced
  • Mental Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Pesticides / poisoning*
  • Psychological Tests


  • Pesticides