This is the first in a series of practice guidelines commissioned by the Infectious Diseases Society of America through its Practice Guidelines Committee. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide assistance to clinicians when making decisions on treating the conditions specified in each guideline. The targeted providers are internists, pediatricians, and family practitioners. The targeted patients and setting for the fever and neutropenia guideline are hospitalized individuals with neutropenia secondary to cancer chemotherapy. Panel members represented experts in adult and pediatric infectious diseases and oncology. The guidelines are evidence-based. A standard ranking system was used for the strength of the recommendations and the quality of the evidence cited in the literature reviewed. The document has been subjected to external review by peer reviewers as well as by the Practice Guidelines Committee and was approved by the IDSA Council. An executive summary, algorithms, and tables highlight the major recommendations. The guideline will be listed on the IDSA home page at http://www.idsociety.org.