One of the major goals of the human genome project is to establish a physical map of each human chromosome with a density of sequence-tagged site (STS) markers exceeding one every 100 kb. We report here the generation of a human chromosome 5-specific radiation hybrid (RH) map that includes 556 markers. Of these markers, 132 loci are ordered with a maximum likelihood ratio of >1000:1 compared with the next most likely order. An additional 113 loci were ordered relative to these backbone markers with a maximum likelihood ratio of >10:1 but <1000:1. Together, these 245 loci form an ordered framework map for the chromosome. Using this framework, >300 more markers were localized based on two-point analysis with the ordered set. On average, there are 50 markers in common with the RH map presented here and other chromosome 5 maps included in the current whole genome cytogenetic, genetic, and physical maps. The accuracy of all the maps is evident in that there are no more than two discrepancies between any one of them and these data. All of the maps encompassing chromosome 5 complement each other providing excellent STS coverage with >2200 loci combined. The chromosome 5-specific RH map contains 20% of these independent loci. In addition, our RH map contains STSs derived from clones suitable for fluorescent in situ hybridization, allowing alignment to the cytogenetic map. Together, these maps will assist in the assembly of sequence-ready contigs and will aid in the identification of disease loci on chromosome 5 by positional cloning and positional candidate approaches.