Risk factors for lung cancer among women in Poland

Lung Cancer. 1997 Oct;18(2):137-45. doi: 10.1016/s0169-5002(97)00062-7.


A total of 118 women with histologically confirmed lung cancer and 141 healthy controls, were involved in a case-control study conducted in Cracow between 1991 and 1994. The aim of this study was to examine the role of smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet in female lung cancer risk. Multivariate analysis has shown that cigarette smoking was the most strongly active risk factor in female lung cancer. Vodka drinkers showed significantly higher risk than non-drinking women. Frequent intakes of carrots (at least three times a week) significantly lowered the risk. The significant protective effect was also observed in women using margarine on bread. The analysis of dose-response relationship in reference to cigarette smoking, vodka drinking and consumption of carrots also confirmed significant influence of these factors on risk.

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Daucus carota
  • Diet*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Margarine
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Poland
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology*


  • Margarine