We present a case of an 81-year-old man with secondary autoimmune granulocytopenia in association with autoimmune thrombocytopenia. Treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (5 micrograms/ kg/day s.c.) resulted in a rapid increase in the number of circulating granulocytes with a pronounced left shift. These changes were accompanied by up-regulation of the surface expression of Fc gamma RI (CD64) and Fc gamma RII (CD32) on the granulocytes. In addition, we noted a strong up-regulation of the Fc gamma RIII (CD16) and the activation markers CD11b and CD66b on the granulocytes. The increase in the number of circulating granulocytes was followed by a dramatic decrease in the level of cell-bound as well as circulating anti-granulocyte antibodies. It is hypothezised that the decrease in the level of cell-bound as well as circulating anti-granulocyte antibodies may be the result of an increased adsorption of the antibodies by the granulocytes.