The authors tested the hypothesis that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) imaging can be used as a supportive diagnostic tool to differentiate clinically stable brain tumors from those progressing as a result of low- to high-grade malignant transformation or posttherapeutic recurrence. Twenty-seven patients with cerebral gliomas verified on histological examination were studied repeatedly with 1H-MRS imaging over a period of 3.5 years. At the time of each 1H-MRS imaging study, clinical examination, MR imaging, positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, and biopsy findings (when available) were used to categorize each patient as having either stable or progressive disease. Measures of the percentage changes in the choline (Cho) 1H-MRS imaging signal intensity between studies, which were obtained without knowledge of the clinical categorization, allowed the investigators to segregate the groups with a high degree of statistical significance. All progressive cases showed a Cho signal increase between studies of more than 45%, whereas all stable cases showed an elevation of less than 35%, no change, or even a decreased signal. The authors conclude that increased Cho levels coincide with malignant degeneration of cerebral gliomas and therefore may possibly be used as a supportive indicator of progression of these neoplasms.