Efficacy of carteolol hydrochloride 1% vs timolol maleate 0.5% in patients with increased intraocular pressure. Nocturnal Investigation of Glaucoma Hemodynamics Trial Study Group

Am J Ophthalmol. 1997 Oct;124(4):498-505. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9394(14)70865-7.


Purpose: To evaluate the ocular hypotensive effect and safety of carteolol hydrochloride 1% vs timolol maleate 0.5%.

Methods: One hundred seventy-six patients with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma were randomly assigned to receive either carteolol 1% twice a day or timolol maleate 0.5% solution twice a day in a randomized, double-masked, multicenter, parallel-group, active-control comparison trial during a 3-month period.

Results: After 12 weeks, carteolol 1% reduced the mean +/- SE intraocular pressure from 25.0 +/- 0.3 to 19.5 +/- 0.3 mm Hg; timolol maleate 0.5% reduced the mean intraocular pressure from 25.2 +/- 0.3 to 19.6 +/- 0.3 mm Hg. The mean difference in trough intraocular pressure between carteolol and timolol maleate of -0.14 mm Hg was not significantly (P = .745) different (95% confidence limits, -0.97 to 0.70 mm Hg). Trough pulse and blood pressure also showed no consistent statistically significant differences between groups. The 2-hour postdose pulse, however, demonstrated a greater decrease in the timolol maleate than in the carteolol group (P < .001). Systemic and ocular signs and symptoms were similar between the groups except that the number of treatment-emergent reports of bradycardia was greater in the timolol maleate group (P = .039), and the carteolol group reported fewer ocular symptoms than the timolol maleate group did (P < .01).

Conclusions: Both carteolol 1% and timolol maleate 0.5% are highly effective in lowering intraocular pressure when measured at the end of the dosing interval. Carteolol 1% demonstrates an ocular hypotensive effect and safety profile similar to those of timolol maleate 0.5% solution.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / adverse effects
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Carteolol / adverse effects
  • Carteolol / therapeutic use*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ocular Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Ocular Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Timolol / adverse effects
  • Timolol / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Timolol
  • Carteolol