Based on successful results in animal models, it has been proposed that high-dose myeloablative therapy followed by autologous bone marrow or stem cell transplantation (ABMT/ASCT) may cure autoimmune disease. The coexistence of autoimmune disease and hematologic malignancy provides an opportunity to examine the response of autoimmune disease to ABMT or ASCT. We describe 4 patients with autoimmune disease (3 with psoriasis and 1 with rheumatoid arthritis) and hematologic malignancy. In each patient, the autoimmune disease remitted posttransplantation, but, in 4 patients with long-term followup, it recurred at 8-24 months. The earliest relapse occurred in a patient treated with interferon-alpha. Our experience suggests that a single autograft with unpurged stem cells is unlikely to cure autoimmune disease, but that other strategies building on this approach are worthy of investigation.