Molecular definition of the cellular receptor for the collagen domain of C1q has been elusive. We now report that C1q binds specifically to human CR1 (CD35), the leukocyte C3b/C4b receptor, and the receptor on erythrocytes for opsonized immune complexes. Biotinylated or radioiodinated C1q (*C1q) bound specifically to transfected K562 cells expressing cell surface CR1 and to immobilized recombinant soluble CR1 (rsCR1). *C1q binding to rsCR1 was completely inhibited by unlabeled C1q and the collagen domain of C1q and was partially inhibited by C3b dimers. Kinetic analysis in physiologic saline of the interaction of unlabeled C1q with immobilized rsCR1 using surface plasmon resonance yielded an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (K[eq2]) of 3.9 nM. Thus, CR1 is a cellular C1q receptor that recognizes all three complement opsonins, namely, C1q, C3b, and C4b.