[Fermentation process during the ensiling of green forage low in nitrate. 2. Fermentation process after supplementation of nitrate, nitrite, lactic acid bacteria and formic acid]

Arch Tierernahr. 1997;50(2):187-200. doi: 10.1080/17450399709386130.
[Article in German]


The effect of adding nitrate and nitrite (0.05% and 0.01% N in DM) of two inoculants or formic acid on the ensiling of orchardgrass and a grass-legumes-mixture, both low in nitrate, was proved in two experiments during ensiling starting in an early stage of fermentation silages without additives contained butyric acid, with increasing amounts up to 180 day of storage period. Silages with added nitrate or nitrite (0.1% N in DM) contained no butyric acid despite of a delay in the formation of lactic acid Nitrite was more effective as nitrate (both 0.05% N in DM) to suppress butyric acid fermentation. However, both additives, nitrite and nitrate, increased the lactic acid fermentation. Interpreting this facts it was hypothesized that the clostridia was inhibited by nitrate and nitrite. Addition of inoculants improved the formation of lactic acid, and decreased pH-value in comparison to control silages. The formation of butyric acid was limited, but not suppressed. The effect of inoculants differed in the intensity of fermentation and the formation of by-products of lactic acid fermentation. The effect of formic acid was not sure.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
  • Animals
  • Butyrates / analysis
  • Butyrates / metabolism
  • Butyrates / pharmacology
  • Butyric Acid
  • Enterococcus faecium / physiology
  • Fabaceae / chemistry
  • Fabaceae / metabolism*
  • Fermentation / physiology*
  • Food, Fortified
  • Formates / administration & dosage
  • Formates / pharmacology*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Lactic Acid / metabolism*
  • Lactobacillus / physiology
  • Nitrates / analysis
  • Nitrates / metabolism
  • Nitrates / pharmacology*
  • Nitrites / administration & dosage
  • Nitrites / pharmacology*
  • Plants, Medicinal*
  • Poaceae / chemistry
  • Poaceae / metabolism*
  • Time Factors


  • Butyrates
  • Formates
  • Nitrates
  • Nitrites
  • formic acid
  • Butyric Acid
  • Lactic Acid