Complications and toxicities of implantable biomaterials used in facial reconstructive and aesthetic surgery: a comprehensive review of the literature

Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997 Oct;100(5):1336-53. doi: 10.1097/00006534-199710000-00043.


The use of implantable biomaterials has become an integral part of aesthetic and reconstructive surgery of the face. Metals are used for fracture fixation devices, whereas polymers are used primarily for bone or soft-tissue substitution. This review of the scientific literature examines the risks and complications of these materials. First, we present an overview of commonly used materials. Second, we address general considerations of toxicity relevant to all biomaterials. Third, we present data from a large number of clinical series on the incidence of complications for individual materials used in specific applications.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biocompatible Materials / adverse effects*
  • Face / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Prostheses and Implants / adverse effects*
  • Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / instrumentation*


  • Biocompatible Materials