Many types of tumors (e.g. virus-induced tumors, melanomas, tumors over-expressing certain oncogenes) often express antigens that can induce T-cell-mediated tumor-specific immune responses. Nonetheless, many such tumors manage to circumvent the induction of an effective anti-tumor T-cell response, as is apparent from the many tumor-bearing patients. Therefore, optimally designed vaccination protocols may evoke a more powerful and competent T-cell-mediated anti-tumor response, allowing the host to effectively deal with at least some cancers. These vaccination approaches might include immunization with whole (tumor) cell-based vaccines, entire tumor antigens or selected T-cell epitopes derived from tumor antigens. This survey is an update of several anti-tumor vaccination approaches employed, and on novel possibilities to target the anti-tumor immune response to preselected tumor-derived T-cell epitopes.