DNA sequence copy number changes were studied by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) along all chromosomes in 58 samples of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). The material consisted of 43 primary tumors (9 of myxoid and 34 of storiform-pleomorphic subtype), 13 local recurrences (2 myxoid and 11 storiform-pleomorphic), and 2 metastases (1 myxoid and 1 storiform-pleomorphic). Genetic aberrations, with a mean of 5.5 changes per sample (range, 0 to 22), were detected in 47 of 58 samples (81%). The minimal common regions of the most frequent gains were 1p31 (33%), 9q31 (29%), 5p14-pter (26%), 7q32 (24%), and 7p15-pter (22%). High-level amplifications were detected in 16 of the 58 samples (28%). High-level amplification of 13q31-qter was seen in four tumors (7%); other high-level amplifications were more sporadic. Losses of DNA sequences were less frequent than gains. The minimal common regions of the most common losses were 13q21 (21%) and 13q22 (21%). Statistically significant correlation was found between gain of 7q32 and the rates of worse metastasis-free survival (P = 0.01) and overall survival (P = 0.004). The gain of 7q32 retained its prognostic significance also in a multivariate analysis with tumor size and grade. Gain of 1p31 was associated with a trend to decreased overall survival. Gains of 5p14-pter and 9q31 and losses of 13q21 and/or 13q22 did not have any prognostic value; neither did the total number of aberrations, total number of gains, or total number of losses per sample.