In addition to the successful replantation of avulsed permanent teeth, the replantation of primary anterior teeth may also be indicated. The decision is based on age and stage of tooth development, development of dentition, storage of the avulsed tooth and the way it is transported to the treatment site, the appropriate in vitro treatment of the tooth before reinsertion, and the willingness of the child to cooperate. A method involving retrograde filling of the primary tooth root with calcium hydroxide after resecting the root apex has proved successful. Other commercially available root filling materials and pins are not indicated. Calcium hydroxide allows the tooth to heal in place without reaction and prevents the development of apical periodontitis. As regards any surgical intervention, the attending dentist in this case has to weigh the benefits against the risks.