Previous investigations on the mutual pharmacokinetic influence of L-dopa and dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease (PD) have shown controversial results. Two studies of the possible clinical and pharmacokinetic interaction between L-dopa and cabergoline were performed in 10 patients with de novo PD and 12 patients with fluctuating PD. In the first study (de novo patients), cabergoline was administered at increasing dosages until the maximum dosage of 2 mg/day once a day for 8 weeks; subsequently L-dopa (250 mg/day) was added. Blood levels of cabergoline were assayed in two different days, before starting L-dopa, and 1 week thereafter. In the second 8-week study (fluctuating patients), cabergoline was added to the current L-dopa therapy (maximum dosage 4 mg/day once a day). Blood levels of L-dopa were measured in two different days, before cabergoline was added, and at the end of the study. In both studies motor performance was evaluated by means of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (motor examination) and the Clinical Global Impression Scale; on-off diaries of daily motor condition also were filled by fluctuating patients. In patients with de novo PD, cabergoline pharmacokinetic parameters were unmodified by the adjunct of L-dopa, except that the time to reach the peak concentration (Tmax) significantly increased after L-dopa. In patients with fluctuating PD, no modification of L-dopa pharmacokinetics was observed before and after cabergoline coadministration. Clinical evaluations confirmed that cabergoline is effective in the treatment of advanced PD as well as in the management of de novo patients.