Neutralizing antibody responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in primary infection and long-term-nonprogressive infection

J Infect Dis. 1997 Oct;176(4):924-32. doi: 10.1086/516508.


The role of neutralizing antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is poorly understood and was assessed by evaluating responses at different stages of infection. Undiluted sera from long-term nonprogressors (LTNP) had broad neutralizing antibodies against heterologous primary isolates and were more likely to neutralize the contemporaneous autologous isolate than were sera from short-term nonprogressors and progressors. In primary infection, envelope-specific IgG was detected before the initial decline in plasma viremia, but neutralizing antibodies developed more slowly. Here, neutralizing antibodies against strains SF-2 and MN were sometimes the first to be detected, but titers were low for at least 17 weeks from onset of symptoms. Neutralizing antibodies against the early autologous isolate were detected for 4 patients by 5-40 weeks but were undetectable in 2 additional patients for 27-45 weeks. The results indicate that neutralizing antibody responses are slow to develop during primary infection and are uniquely broad in LTNP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chemokine CCL4
  • Chemokine CCL5 / analysis
  • Chemokine CCL5 / immunology
  • HIV Antibodies / analysis*
  • HIV Antibodies / immunology*
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • HIV-1 / growth & development
  • HIV-1 / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / analysis
  • Immunoglobulin G / immunology
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins / analysis
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins / immunology
  • Neutralization Tests*
  • Survivors
  • Viral Load
  • Viremia / immunology


  • Chemokine CCL4
  • Chemokine CCL5
  • HIV Antibodies
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins