CXC-chemokine receptor (CXCR)-4/fusin, a newly discovered co-receptor for T-cell line (T)-tropic HIV-1 virus, plays a critical role in T-tropic virus fusion and entry into permissive cells. The occurrence of T-tropic HIV viruses is associated with CD4-positive cell decline and progression to AIDS, suggesting that the T-tropic HIV-1 contributes to AIDS pathogenesis. In this study, we used a novel strategy to inactivate CXCR-4 by targeting a modified CXC-chemokine to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to block the surface expression of newly synthesized CXCR-4. The genetically modified lymphocytes expressing this intracellular chemokine, termed "intrakine", are immune to T-tropic virus infection and appear to retain normal biological features. Thus, this genetic intrakine strategy is uniquely targeted at the conserved cellular receptor for the prevention of HIV-1 entry and may be developed into an effective treatment for HIV-1 infection and AIDS.