We determined the complete sequence of the rrs gene from five strains of genomic species PotiB2. Both distance and parsimony methods were used to infer the evolutionary relationships of the rrs gene sequence of this genomic species in comparison with the rrs gene sequence of Borrelia valaisiana and the rrs gene sequences of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species obtained from sequence databases. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the genomic species PotiB2 strains clustered in a separate lineage, which was consistent with data from previous DNA-DNA hybridization experiments (D. Postic, M. V. Assous, P. A. D. Grimont, and G. Baranton, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44:743-752, 1994). A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to identify genomic species PotiB2 and to differentiate it from B. burgdorferi sensu lato species. Moreover, signature nucleotide positions were identified for each B. burgdorferi sensu lato species. In accordance with DNA relatedness values, our findings suggest that genomic species PotiB2 can be more clearly defined and identified, and we propose that it should be referred to as a new species, Borrelia lusitaniae. The type strain is PotiB2.