This trial assessed whether behavioral treatment improves outcome during a 26-week outpatient opioid detoxification. Thirty-nine opioid-dependent adults were assigned randomly to a buprenorphine dose-taper combined with either behavioral or standard treatment. Behavioral treatment included (a) a voucher incentive program for providing opioid-free urine samples and engaging in verifiable therapeutic activities and (b) the community reinforcement approach, a multicomponent behavioral treatment. Standard treatment included lifestyle counseling. Fifty-three percent of the patients receiving behavioral treatment completed treatment, versus 20% receiving standard treatment. The percentage of patients achieving 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of continuous opioid abstinence were 68, 47, 26, and 11 for the behavioral group and 55, 15, 5, and 0 for the standard group, respectively. Behavioral treatment improved outcomes during outpatient detoxification.