The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-embedded transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) associates with peptides in the cytosol and translocates these into the ER lumen. Here, MHC class I molecules bind a subset of these peptides and the remainder is either removed or degraded, or may be retained in the ER in association with other proteins. We have visualized peptide-binding proteins in the ER using radioactive peptides with a photoreactive group. Besides TAP, two proteins were identified as gp96 and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Calreticulin, previously found in complex with TAP, only binds glycosylated peptides. In addition, two as yet unidentified, ER luminal glycoproteins (gp120 and gp170) were visualized. The effects of peptide size and sequence on binding to the ER-resident proteins were studied by using partially degenerated peptides with photoreactive side chains. All identified proteins were able to bind peptides within the size range of peptides translocated by TAP, from 8 to more than 20 amino acids. Whereas PDI associated with all peptides tested, gp96 and gp120 showed a clear sequence preference for non-charged amino acids at positions 2 and 9 in 9mer peptides. Thus various ER proteins, other than the MHC class I heterodimer and TAP, are able to interact with peptides albeit with a different substrate selectivity.