We studied the increased levels of hemoglobins AIa+Ib and AIc in five hospitalized diabetic patients to determine whether changes in diabetic control would cause parallel changes in the levels of these hemoglobins. Before control of diabetes the mean fasting blood sugar for all patients was 343 mg per deciliter (range, 280 to 450), and hemoglobin AIc concentration 9.8 per cent (range, 6.8 to 12.1). During optimal diabetic control the blood sugar concentration was 84 mg per deciliter (range, 70 to 100), and hemoglobin AIc concentration 5.8 per cent (range, 4.2 to 7.6). Hemoglobin AIc concentration appears to reflect the mean blood sugar concentration best over previous weeks to months. The periodic monitoring of hemoglobin AIc levels provides a useful way of documenting the degree of control of glucose metabolism in diabetic patients and provides a means whereby the relation of carbohydrate control to the development of sequelae can be assessed.