Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 71 (11), 8289-98

Neutralizing Antibodies Against the V3 Loop of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 Block the CD4-dependent and -Independent Binding of Virus to Cells

Affiliations

Neutralizing Antibodies Against the V3 Loop of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120 Block the CD4-dependent and -Independent Binding of Virus to Cells

A Valenzuela et al. J Virol.

Abstract

The CD4 molecule is an essential receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through high-affinity interactions with the viral external envelope glycoprotein gp120. Previously, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the third hypervariable domain of gp120 (the V3 loop) have been thought to block HIV infection without affecting the binding of HIV particles to CD4-expressing human cells. However, here we demonstrate that this conclusion was not correct and was due to the use of soluble gp120 instead of HIV particles. Indeed, neutralizing anti-V3 loop MAbs inhibited completely the binding and entry of HIV particles into CD4+ human cells. In contrast, the binding of virus was only partially inhibited by neutralizing anti-CD4 MAbs against the gp120 binding site in CD4, which, like the anti-V3 loop MAbs, completely inhibited HIV entry and infection. Nonneutralizing control MAbs against either the V3 loop or the N or C terminus of gp120 had no significant effect on HIV binding and entry. HIV-1 particles were also found to bind human and murine cells expressing or not expressing the human CD4 molecule. Interestingly, the binding of HIV to CD4+ murine cells was inhibited by both anti-V3 and anti-CD4 MAbs, whereas the binding to human and murine CD4- cells was affected only by anti-V3 loop MAbs. The effect of anti-V3 loop neutralizing MAbs on the HIV binding to cells appears not to be the direct consequence of gp120 shedding from HIV particles or of a decreased affinity of CD4 or gp120 for binding to its surface counterpart. Taken together, our results suggest the existence of CD4-dependent and -independent binding events involved in the attachment of HIV particles to cells; in both of these events, the V3 loop plays a critical role. As murine cells lack the specific cofactor CXCR4 for HIV-1 entry, other cell surface molecules besides CD4 might be implicated in stable binding of HIV particles to cells.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 13 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Nature. 1970 Aug 15;227(5259):680-5 - PubMed
    1. Nature. 1984 Dec 20-1985 Jan 2;312(5996):763-7 - PubMed
    1. Nature. 1984 Dec 20-1985 Jan 2;312(5996):767-8 - PubMed
    1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Jul;82(13):4341-5 - PubMed
    1. Cell. 1986 Jun 6;45(5):637-48 - PubMed

Publication types

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback