A case of thymoma with associated opportunistic infections, CD4/CD8 T-lymphocyte imbalance, low CD4-positive T-lymphocyte counts and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) without HIV infection is reported. Cytomegalovirus inclusions were identified in the nuclei of some KS spindle and endothelial cells. It is known that KS has a high prevalence in AIDS patients and has occasionally been associated with other causes of immunosuppression. In previous studies, coexisting KS and thymoma were related to myasthenia gravis, corticosteroid treatment and excess CD8-positive T-lymphocyte counts. More recently an imbalance between CD4 and CD8 positive T lymphocytes has been identified in association with thymoma. The present case suggests that there may be a relationship between thymoma, CD4-positive lymphopenia, and KS.