Current models of verbal working memory assume that modality-specific representations are translated into phonological representations before entering the working memory system. We report an experiment that tests this assumption. Positron emission tomography measures were taken while subjects performed a verbal working memory task. Stimuli were presented either visually or aurally, and a visual or auditory search tasks, respectively, was used as a control. Results revealed an almost complete overlap between the active memory areas regardless of input modality. These areas included dorsolateral frontal, Broca's area, SMA, and premotor cortex in the left hemisphere; bilateral superior and posterior parietal cortices and anterior cingulate; and right cerebellum. These results correspond well with previous research and suggest that verbal working memory is modality independent and is mediated by a circuit involving frontal, parietal, and cerebellar mechanisms.