Several genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been recently identified by phylogenetic analysis, but their clinical relevance in the liver transplant setting is unknown. We evaluated the incidence and course of recurrent hepatitis C after transplantation in 50 patients who underwent transplantation for HCV-related liver disease. Liver biopsy specimens were obtained when clinically indicated and at yearly intervals; hepatitis was histologically graded and staged according to standard criteria. HCV-RNA was detected by nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). HCV genotyping was performed by primer specific PCR. Follow-up was 6 to 62 months. HCV genotype distribution after transplantation of our 50 patients was as follows: 31 type 1b, 13 type 2a, 3 type 1a, 1 type 3a, 1 type 1b/2a, and 1, undetermined. Actuarial rates of recurrent hepatitis and of severe fibrosis or cirrhosis 5 years after transplantation were 56% and 20%, respectively, in patients infected by type 1b and 33% (P = .18) and 8% (P = .16) in those infected by 2a. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that in patients infected by HCV type 1b there is a trend for a more aggressive recurrent liver disease.