Mouse Spa-1 gene with a region homologous to the human rap1GAP gene is transcriptionally induced in the lymphocytes by mitogenic stimulation. Herein we have cloned a cDNA for its human counterpart. SPA-1 cDNA encodes a 130-kDa protein (p130(SPA-1)) consisting of proline-rich regions and rap1GAP-related domain followed by a coiled-coil stretch. Baculovirally expressed p130(SPA-1) exhibited GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity for Rap1 and Rap2, but not for Ras, Rho, Cdc42, Rac, and Ran, with comparable specific activity to the rap1GAP gene product (p85/95(rap1GAP)). In the cells, p130(SPA-1) was mostly localized at the perinuclear membranous region co-localizing with Rap1 and Rap2. Expression of SPA-1 and rap1GAP genes tended to be segregate in various tissues, lymphoid tissues expressing abundant SPA-1 transcript without rap1GAP, while those such as brain, kidney, and pancreas exhibiting rap1GAP mRNA with little SPA-1. Promyelocytic HL-60 cells, which expressed p130(SPA-1) with little p85/95(rap1GAP) in uninduced state, showed progressive decline in p130(SPA-1) and conversely drastic increase in p85/95(rap1GAP) as they ceased from proliferation and differentiated into macrophages by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. These results suggested that products of SPA-1 and rap1GAP genes, albeit comparable GAP activity for Rap1 and Rap2, functioned in the distinct contexts depending on cell types and/or states.