The Drug-Taking Confidence Questionnaire (DTCQ; Annis & Martin, 1985) is a 50-item self-report questionnaire developed to assess situation-specific coping self-efficacy for use of a particular substance of abuse (e.g., cocaine, heroin, alcohol, cannabis, etc.). Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the DTCQ on 713 clients seeking treatment at an addiction treatment facility provided strong evidence for the situation-specificity of efficacy beliefs. An 8-factor first-order model, based on the eight high-risk categories for relapse identified by G.A. Marlatt (Marlatt & Gordon, 1980) and a 3-factor second-order model (i.e., negative situations, positive situations, and temptation situations) provided the best fit to the data. All eight subscales of the DTCQ were shown to have good reliability (alphas .79 to .95). Extensive convergent and discriminant validity analyses for the DTCQ and its subscales in relation to ADS, DAST, OES, DRIE, SCQ, SCL-90R, BDI, HS, and SOCRATES substantiate that the DTCQ is a promising tool for further research and clinical application.