Plasma IgM and IgG antibody reactivities against the recombinant Plasmodium falciparum protein, Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (rRAP-1) were measured by ELISA in individuals from Sudan, Indonesia, Kenya and The Gambia living in areas of different malaria endemicity. IgG and IgM reactivities to rRAP-1 increased with malaria endemicity. IgG reactivities were associated with spleen rates in Indonesia with high malaria endemicity while IgM reactivities were associated with spleen rates in Kenya with low malaria endemicity. IgG and IgM reactivities to rRAP-1 increased during acute episodes of P. falciparum malaria in Sudanese adults and IgG reactivities remained high one month after treatment in all adults tested. Antibody reactivities to rRAP-1 in Gambian children in the dry season were higher in children with parasitaemia than in children without detectable parasitaemia. Antibody reactivities were not associated with protection against clinical episodes in the following rainy season but higher antibody reactivities were detectable at the end of the rainy season. There was no difference in antibody reactivity to rRAP-1 between Gambian children with mild or severe malaria.