Increasing evidence suggests that antagonistic interactions between specific subtypes of adenosine and dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia are involved in the motor depressant effects of adenosine receptor agonists and the motor stimulant effects of adenosine receptor antagonists, such as caffeine. The GABAergic striatopallidal neurons are regulated by interacting adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors. On the other hand, the GABAergic striatonigral and striatoentopeduncular neurons seem to be regulated by interacting adenosine A1 and dopamine D1 receptors. Furthermore, behavioural studies have revealed interactions between adenosine A2A and dopamine D1 receptors that occur at the network level. These adenosine-dopamine receptor-receptor interactions might offer new therapeutic leads for basal ganglia disorders.