The intensive use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in the context of prolonged and severe neutropenia has contributed to the emergence of unusual pathogens. Four new cases of severe Lactobacillus infections-three of septicemia and one of pneumonia-are reported. They occurred in patients with acute leukemia who had chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. All patients were treated in the same intensive care unit and received the same antimicrobial prophylaxis which included a total bowel decontamination containing vancomycin. The four patients were treated with a combination of intravenous ceftazidime and vancomycin prior to the development of Lactobacillus infection. Improvement in the condition of all patients was obtained with a treatment including penicillin and concurrent recovery of granulopoiesis.