Diminished systolic function or inappropriate hypertrophy are considered risk factors for outcome following the Fontan procedure. These parameters are difficult to assess in univentricular hearts that do not conform to the uniform shapes prescribed by conventional 2-dimensional imaging volume algorithms. Three-dimensional echocardiography requires no geometric assumptions and has been validated in both normal and distorted left ventricles. To assess the feasibility and accuracy of this technique in patients with univentricular hearts, we compared 2- and 3-dimensional echocardiographic estimates of ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and mass in patients with functionally single left ventricles with results obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twelve patients with functionally single left ventricles (6 months to 22 years) underwent examination by all 3 modalities. Correlation and agreement with MRI were calculated for volumes, ejection fraction, and mass. Three-dimensional echocardiographic comparison with MRI yielded a bias of 3.4 +/- 5.5 ml and 14.2 +/- 8.3 ml for systolic and diastolic volumes, respectively. Agreement analysis for mass showed a bias of 5.8 +/- 8.4 grams. Two-dimensional echocardiography showed less agreement for both volumes and mass (bias of -2.9 +/- 8.1, 2.9 +/- 10.4 ml and -8.3 +/- 12.0 g for volume and mass, respectively, p >0.05). Ejection fraction by 3-dimensional echocardiography showed significantly closer agreement with MRI (bias of 4.4 +/- 5.3%) than 2-dimensional echocardiography (bias of 8.5 +/- 10.3%, p = 0.04). Thus, 3-dimensional echocardiography provides estimates of ventricular volumes, ejection fraction, and mass that are comparable to MRI in this select group of patients with single ventricles of left ventricular morphology.